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People Movers

January 22, 2011

Glenn Beck has been talking a lot about People Movers or Motivations lately so I thought I would post a little bit to help people researching the subject. Glenn has been focusing on Self Preservation, Security, Sex, and Aggression but this goes into it a bit more in depth.

THEORIES OF MOTIVATION-WHAT MAKES US TICK?

1. PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORIES

INSTINCTS

    * instincts are forces that drive personality
    * Freud says human is complex energy system that requires energy to do psychological work :thinking,perceiving,remembering, dreaming)
    * instincts are responsible for generating psychic energy
    * behaviour has biological basis-instinctual drives are activated by bodily needs that motivate
    * humans seek gratification
    * we have urge to satisfy self to reach state of homeostasis: (balanced state) a state of peaceful freedom from need

NIRVANA AND PLEASURE PRINCIPLE

Nirvana Principle

    * humans seek to reduce excitation and tension to reach state of homeostasis ( Nirvana previously called constancy principle) Freud
    * originally Freud saw nirvana linked to pleasure; later he revised thinking to say that some states of pleasure require an increase in excitation rather than a decrease
    * this would explain those who seek tension and excitement to have pleasure
    * Freud distinguished two types of instincts: Eros and Thanatos

Eros

    * life instincts and sexual instincts
    * aim is to survive, self preservation, procreation, pleasure
    * these belong to libido

Libido

    * is not purely sexual, includes hunger, pain avoidance and erotic urges
    * libido seeks to gratify physical and pleasurable feelings associated with life instincts

Thanatos

    * includes all instincts that do not fall under Eros, includes death instincts
    * Freud said "Aim of all life is death"
    * we seek homeostasis-orgasmic quietude
    * aggression instinct-tension can be reduced by verbal, physical or symbolic attack
    * examples of self aggression: taking drugs
    * acceptable aggression: contact sports
    * aggression released through catharsis
    * human must learn to control aggressive instinct before it controls
    * humans sublimate aggression into sports, or creative activities: art writing acting

2. MASLOW'S HUMANISTIC THEORY OF HUMAN NEEDS

    * Maslow believed human is not at war as Freud says
    * Maslow says human nature essentially good not potentially evil
    * emphasis is on human strength and virtue
    * Maslow studied the healthy individual

      Maslow's HIERARCHY OF HUMAN NEEDS

    * human is a wanting animal reaching for satisfaction
    * once one need is satisfied, human reaches to fulfill another need
    * there are universal human needs: physiological, safety and security, social needs, esteem needs, cognitive needs,aesthetic needs and self actualization needs
    * these needs help us to grow and self actualize

SELF ACTUALIZATION NEEDS
AESTHETIC NEEDS /COGNITIVE NEEDS
ESTEEM NEEDS
SOCIAL NEEDS FOR LOVE AND BELONGING
SAFETY AND SECURITY NEEDS
PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS

1. ONE MOVES UP THE LEVELS
2. SATISFIED NEEDS DON'T MOTIVATE
3. All people donÕt necessarily reach the top level

LEVEL ONE: PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS

    * survival needs: food, water, sex, sleep, air

LEVEL TWO: SAFETY AND SECURITY NEEDS

    * shelter, transportation, routines

LEVEL THREE: SOCIAL NEEDS FOR LOVE AND BELONGING

    * intimacy, caring relations, groups

LEVEL FOUR: ESTEEM NEEDS

    * need to feel good about self-worthy (internal/external)

LEVEL FIVE/SIX: COGNITIVE/AESTHETIC NEEDS

    * satisfy curiosity, search for meaning
    * search for beauty symmetry and closure

LEVEL SEVEN: SELF ACTUALIZATION

    * to reach our potential- become what we can -to grow

CHARACTERISTICS OF SELF ACTUALIZED PEOPLE

    * perceive clearly and efficiently-to detest dishonesty see confused reality
    * accept themselves and others without guilt or complaint
    * behave spontaneously, simply and naturally
    * focus on problems external not own ego-completing some life task
    * enjoy privacy and solitude more than average person
    * autonomous not dependent on physical/social world
    * display fresh appreciation for life
    * have mystical or peak experiences
    * posses a deep feeling for humanity
    * respectful and humble before others
    * deep relationships with limited number of people
    * ethically strong, possessing moral standards
    * can distinguish between means and ends
    * display unusual sense of humour philosophical rather than hostile

Maslow's Metamotivation

    * self actualizing people are motivated by different things
    * Maslow calls this metamotivation or B- motivation (Being Motivation)
    * self actualizer not preoccupied by reducing tensions but enriching life motivation to self actualize is intrinsic- an act for the sake of the act rather than for some external reward

Maslow's D- Motivation ( Deficiency motivation)

    * D- motivation rectifies deficiencies-biologic, psychological
    * gratification through lower level needs

Metapathology

    * frustrated meta needs can lead to metapathology
    * frustrated need for truth leads to cynicism
    * frustrated need for meaning leads to despair

3. BEHAVIOURIST ACCOUNT OF MOTIVATION

    * behaviourist is only interested in what can be seen or measured
    * unconscious is irrelevant to behaviourist--look at behaviour-external
    * Behaviourist: What we do is what we have learned
    * Learning: any relatively permanent change in behaviour attributed to experience

      Classical Conditioning

    * Pavlov - studied salivation in dogs -dogs salivated to food- food is an unconditioned stimulus
    * Pavlov noticed that event before the food also produced salivation
    * pairing a bell and food- bell produced salivation -bell had become a conditioned stimulus
    * many events that are paired in life become associated

      Operant Conditioning

    * Thorndike's Law of Effect: a response followed by pleasurable consequence will tend to be repeated; a response followed by unpleasant consequence will tend not to be repeated
    * difference from classical is that person or animal must act (operate) on the environment and the act must be followed by a consequence
    * eg. bird pecks at level and food follows- bird learns lever gets food
    * Reinforcer: anything that creates a pleasant or satisfying state of affairs
    * Reinforcement can be negative or positive
    * positive reinforcement: praise for doing good job
    * negative reinforcement: headache-take pill- pill takes headache away
    * punishment: aversive or noxious state of affairs that will tend to stop behaviour
    * Behaviourist: we are shaped by our experiences

4. BANDURA SOCIAL LEARNING

    * much learning occurs through observation- vicarious learning
    * we imitate what we see Observational Learning
    * attention and retention required
    * motivation or incentive is required then motor reproduction
    * we may directly imitate another ( when we are unfamiliar how to act)
    * we may indirectly imitate ( see one person being friendly, also act friendly)
    * imitation depends on consequences
    * Bandura and Bobo doll experiment

5. CHOICE THEORY OF MOTIVATION-WILLIAM GLASSER

Glasser's Basic needs:

1. need to survive and reproduce
2. need to belong, love and share and cooperate
3. need for power
4. need for freedom
5. need for fun

    * all basic needs are produced by genetics and biology
    * everyone is motivated
    * BUT how needs are satisfied is not universal
    * we all have a picture album in mind where we store images of what we want and what we have
    * we have an ideal world in mind- the picture of the ideal may change
    * some people have an unrealistic picture -therefore getting that may be unattainable
    * human is a behavioural control system: if what we want and what we get is equivalent, then little frustration
    * the greater the frustration the greater the motivation to act ( this explains why people fly into action)

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