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A Plethora of Numbers Traces a Decade of Change

December 29, 2009

Numbers are one way to measure where you've been and where you're going. In the first decade of the 21st century, numbers show that the U.S. has grown in population but that its per household earnings, adjusted for inflation, have declined. The trade deficit has increased with China , but declined with Europe . The number of Republican public officials has dropped and so has the average approval rating of the presidents. Exxon Mobil has replaced Microsoft as the most valuable U.S. company. The number of college students has dropped, and cell phone use has skyrocketed.

Here are other statistics that trace the changes that took place in the last 10 years. Constant dollar calculations were made with the Bureau of Labor Statistics' inflation calculator, found at http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/cpicalc.pl.

THE UNITED STATES

Population

279,295,000 (1999); 308,150,087 (2009)

Hispanic percentage

11.7 (1999); 15.1 (2007)

Black percentage

13 (1999); 12.3 percent (2008)

Source: U.S. Census Bureau

U.S. POLITICS

Registered voters

183 million (1998); 189 million (2008)

Republican governors

31 (1999); 22 (2009)

Democratic governors

17 (1999); 28 (2009)

Republican state legislators

3,442 (1999); 3,234 (2009)

Democratic state legislators

3,882 (1999); 4,073 (2009)

Female members of U.S. House of Representatives

60 (1999); 78 (2009)

Female members of the U.S. Senate

9 (1999); 17 (2009)

Openly gay U.S. members of Congress

3 (1999); 3 (2009)

Millionaires in the Senate

30 (1999); 67 (2009)

Millionaires in the House

66 (1999); 170 (2009)

Lobbyists registered with Congress

13,233 (1999); 13,426 (2009)

Members of Congress with Twitter accounts

0 (1999; Twitter was created in 2006); 210 (2009)

Average presidential approval rating (percentage)

57 (1999); 49.8 ( Dec. 10, 2009 )

Sources: U.S. Census Bureau , Roll Call, Committee for Responsive Government, Center for Responsive Politics .

FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

Number of federal executive branch employees

1.778 million (1999); 1.977 million (2009, estimate)

Total federal debt

$5.606 trillion (1999); $12.9 trillion (2009, estimate)

Total federal budget

$1.733 trillion (1999); $2.932 trillion (2009)

Gross tax collection by Internal Revenue Service

$1.769 trillion (1999); $2.745 trillion (2008)

Top individual tax rate:

39.6 percent (1999); 35 percent (2008)

Income subject to top tax rate

$283,150 (1999); $372,950 (2008)

In 1999 constant dollars

$283,150 (1999); $288,586 (2008)

Number of taxpayers paying top marginal tax rate

864,129 (1999); 1,060,714 (2007)

Sources: Office of Management and Budget , Internal Revenue Service , Bureau of Labor Statistics CPI Inflation Calculator

ECONOMY

Dow Jones industrial average

11,497.12 ( Dec. 31, 1999 ); 10,547.83 ( Dec. 28 )

U.S. work force

139 million (1999); 155 million (2009)

People over 65 still working

4 million (1999); 6 million (2008)

Households receiving Social Security

27.1 million (1999); 30.6 million (2008)

Number of two-income households

37.5 million (1999); 39.3 million (2008)

Unemployment rate

4.2 percent (1999); 10 percent ( November 2009 )

Jobless workers

5.7 million (1999); 15.4 million ( November 2009 )

Unemployed workers not included in jobless number because they haven't looked for work in the past month

1.1 million (1999); 2.3 million ( November 2009 )

Median household income

$44,900 (1999); $50,303 (2008)

In 1999 constant dollars

$44,900 (1999); $38,924 (2008)

Median sales price for existing homes

$138,000 (1999); $172,700 (2009)

In constant 1999 dollars

$138,000 (1999); $133,000 (2009)

Median sales price for new homes

$161,000 (1999); $212,000 (2009)

In constant 1999 dollars

$161,000 (1999); $163,265 (2009)

Number of foreclosure proceedings

450,000 (1999); 2 million (2009, estimate)

Banks seized by Federal Deposit Insurance Corp.

8 (1999); 133 (through Dec. 11, 2009 )

People living below the poverty line

32.8 million in 1999; 39.8 million in 2008

Poverty line for a family of four

$17,029 (1999); $22,025 (2008)

In constant 1999 dollars

$17,029 (1999); $17,043 (2008)

Federal minimum wage (hourly)

$5.15 (1999); $7.25 (2009)

In constant 1999 dollars

$5.15 (1999); $5.58 (1999)

Value of a dollar

$1 (1999); 77 cents (2009, in constant 1999 dollars )

Top CEO salary

$569.8 million (1999, Michael Eisner , Disney Corp. ); $556.9 million (2009, Lawrence Ellison , Oracle Corp. ; $428.9 million in constant 1999 dollars )

Average CEO compensation for Fortune 500 companies

$8.4 million (1999, then the Fortune 800); $11.4 million (2009; $8.78 million in constant 1999 dollars )

Market capitalization of Exxon Mobil

$281.6 billion (2000); $353.5 billion ( Oct. 23, 2009 )

In constant 2000 dollars

$281.6 billion (2000); $281.4 billion ( Oct. 23, 2009 )

Market capitalization of Microsoft

$281.9 billion (2000); $250.2 billion ( Oct. 23, 2009 )

In constant 2000 dollars

$281.9 billion (2000); $199.2 billion ( Oct. 23, 2009 )

Estimated worth of Bill Gates , the richest American

$85 billion (1999); $50 billion (2009, $38.5 billion in constant 1999 dollars )

Value of U.S. exports

$965.88 billion (1999); $1.83 trillion (2008)

In constant 1999 dollars

$965.88 billion (1999); $1.41 trillion (2008)

Value of U.S. imports

$1.23 trillion (1999); $2.52 trillion (2008)

In constant 1999 dollars

$1.23 trillion (1999); $1.95 trillion (2008)

U.S. trade deficit

$265.09 billion (1999); $695.94 billion (2008)

In constant 1999 dollars

$265.09 billion (1999); $538.51 billion (2008)

Total trade with China (imports and exports)

$94.9 billion (1999); $296.24 billion (through October 2009 )

In constant 1999 dollars

$94.9 billion (1999); $228.14 billion (through October 2009 )

Trade deficit with China

$68.7 billion (1999); $188.5 billion (through October 2009 )

In constant 1999 dollars

$68.7 billion (1999); $145.17 billion (through October 2009 )

Total trade with European Union (exports and imports)

$354.8 billion (1999); $453.9 billion (through October 2009 )

In constant 1999 dollars

$354.8 billion (1999); $349.56 billion (through October 2009 )

Trade deficit with EU

$45.2 billion (1999); $47.7 billion (through October 2009 )

In constant 1999 dollars

$45.2 billion (1999); $36.73 billion (through October 2009 )

U.S. car and light truck sales

16.89 million (1999); 9.376 million (through November 2009 )

U.S. automakers' market share

69 percent (1999); 44.6 percent (through November 2009 )

Number of workers making cars

169,800 (1999); 88,900 ( October 2009 )

Auto manufacturing jobs by state

Michigan : 94,200 (1999); 31,100 ( October 2009 )

Ohio : 39,700 (1999); 14,600 ( October 2009 )

Kentucky : 19,800 (1999); 8,600 ( October 2009 )

Indiana : 9,000 (1999); 10,900 ( October 2009 )

Texas : 5,800 (1999); 9,300 ( October 2009 )

Alabama : 2,400 (1999); 11,000 ( October 2009 )

Sources: Interactive Data Real-Time Services, Bureau of Labor Statistics , U.S. Census Bureau , National Association of Realtors , Mortgage Bankers Association , Forbes magazine , National Automobile Dealers Association , J.D. Power and Associates , TheOnlineInvestor.com; Stern School of Business, New York University , Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. , the Department of Labor , Bureau of Labor Statistics CPI Inflation Calculator .

TECHNOLOGY

Percentage of households with land-line telephones

96 (1998); 91 (2005)

Percentage of households with cell phones

36 (1998); 71 (2005)

Factory sales of cell phones

30,667 (1999); 90,698 (2009)

Average annual household cell-service expense

$210 (2001); $606 (2007)

In constant 2001 dollars

$210 (2001); $518

Number of text messages sent in December

2.1 billion (2003); 110.4 billion (2008)

Total Internet retail sales

$5 billion (fourth quarter 1999); $32 billion (third quarter 2009)

In constant 1999 dollars

$5 billion (fourth quarter 1999); $25 billion (third quarter 2009)

Number of homes with cable TV

69 million (2000); 62 million (2006)

Number of homes with satellite TV systems

11.7 million (2000); 28 million (2007)

Average monthly cost for basic cable

$28.92 (1999); $44.28 (2008)

In constant 1999 dollars

$28.92 (1999); $34.26 (2008)

Number of AOL subscribers

18.6 million (first quarter 2000); 5.4 million (third quarter 2009)

Number of digital TVs and monitors sold

121 (1999); 35,414 (2009)

Average price of a digital monitor

$2,443 (1999); $688 (2009)

In constant 1999 dollars

$2,443 (1999); $530 (2009)

Number of personal computers sold

14,900 (1999); 27,945 (2009)

Average price of a personal computer

$1,100 (1999); $590 (2009)

In constant 1999 dollars

$1,100 (1999); $454 (2009)

Number of laptops sold

7,248 (2003); 18,738 (2009)

Average price of a laptop

$1,155 (2003); $623 (2009)

In constant 2003 dollars

$1,155 (2003); $530 (2009)

Number of satellites in orbit

623 (1999); 1,002 (2009)

Number of countries with manned space programs

2 (1999); 3 (2009)

Minutes of Skype Internet phone calls

0 (1999; Skype was founded in 2003); 3.1 billion (third quarter 2009)

Number of contributors to Wikipedia

0 (1999; Wikipedia was created in 2001); 85,000 (2009)

Number of entries on Wikipedia

0 (1999); 14 million in 260 languages (3,120,633 in English) (2009)

Sources: U.S. Census Bureau , AOL , Consumer Electronics Association , Harvard Center for Astrophysics , Skype , Wikipedia, Bureau of Labor Statistics CPI Inflation Calculator .

ENVIRONMENT

Average annual estimated CO2 emissions worldwide (tons)

23.4 billion (1999); 29.9 billion (2007)

United States : 5.97 billion (1999); 6.01 billion (2007)

China : 2.91 billion (1999); 6.28 billion (2007)

Europe : 4.42 billion (1999); 4.69 billion (2007)

Average U.S. vehicle gasoline consumption in miles per gallon

27.5 (1999); 27.5 (2009)

U.S. oil consumption (barrels per day)

19.519 million (1999); 19.498 million (2008)

China oil consumption (barrels per day)

4.364 million (1999); 7.831 million (2008)

Europe oil consumption (barrels per day)

16.03 million (1999); 16.147 million (2008)

Species protected under the Endangered Species Act

1,189 (1999); 1,322 (2009)

Number of people in the world without safe drinking water

1.1 billion (2000); 884 million (2009)

Number of days of unsafe air in Los Angeles

152 (1999); 112 (2009)

Area of the Arctic ice cap (square miles)

2.48 million ( September 1999 ); 2.07 million ( September 2009 )

Sources: Department of Energy , Environmental Protection Agency

MILITARY

Number of active-duty members of the U.S. armed forces ( Army , Navy , Air Force , Marines)

1.1 million (1999); 1.4 million (2009)

Defense budget (including supplementals)

$270.5 billion (fiscal year 1999); $680 billion (fiscal year 2010)

In constant 1999 dollars

$270.5 billion (fiscal year 1999); $524 billion (fiscal year 2010)

Percentage of new recruits who graduated high school

98 (1999); 73.8 (2009)

Number of troops based in Germany

65,540 (1999); 53,960 (2009)

Number of troops based in South? Korea

36,000 (1999); 28,500 (2009)

Authorized strength of U.S. military Reserves ( National Guard and Reserves)

877,000 (1999); 847,900 (2009)

Number of troops based in the country with the largest U.S. military presence

65,540 (1999, Germany ); 115,000 ( November 2009 , Iraq )

Minimum pay for a major in the Army

$31,349 (1999); $48,322 (2009)

In constant 1999 dollars

$31,349 (1999); $37,214 (2009)

Minimum pay for a private first class in the Army

$13,417 (1999); $19,796 (2009)

In constant 1999 dollars

$13,417 (1999); $15,245 (2009)

Number of Air Force bases in the United States

72 (1999); 68 (2009)

Number of U.S. military commands

8 (1999); 10 (2009)

Number of U.S. aircraft carriers

12 (1999); 11 (2009)

Russian military spending in constant 2005 dollars

$14.04 billion (1999); $38.23 billion (2008)

Chinese military spending in constant 2005 dollars

$21.62 billion (1999); $63.4 billion (2008)

U.S. arms sales to developing countries (constant 2007 dollars )

$22.67 billion (2000); $12.16 billion (2007)

U.S. market share of arms sales (percentage)

59 (2000); 34 (2007)

China's market share of arms sales (percentage)

1.8 (2000); 9 (2007)

Sources: Department of Defense , Military Pay Chart, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute , Bureau of Labor Statistics CPI Inflation Calculator

EDUCATION

Percentage of science and engineering Ph.D.s granted by U.S. universities that went to foreigners

33 (1999); 42 (2009)

High school graduates

1.15 million (1999); 989,000 (2008)

Number of private high school students

1.278 million (1999); 1.319 million (2008)

Number of public high school students

14.638 million (1999); 15.397 million (2008)

National high school dropout rate

5 percent (1999); 3.5 percent (2007)

Number of students enrolled in four-year colleges, full and part time

11 million (1999); 9.6 million (2008)

Number of full-time students at four-year colleges

7.913 million (1999); 7.981 million (2008)

Number of African-Americans enrolled in four-year colleges

1.4 million (1999); 1 million (2008)

Number of students enrolled in two-year colleges

4.201 million (1999); 3.397 million (2008)

Enrollment in traditional black colleges

270,641 (fall 1999); 312,248 (fall 2008)

Salary and benefits of the highest paid college president

$878,222 (1999, Harry C. Payne , Williams College )

$1,598,247 (2008, Shirley Ann Jackson , Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute ; in constant 1999 dollars , $1,236,713 )

Sources: U.S. Census Bureau , National Center for Education Statistics , United Negro College Fund , Chronicle of Higher Education , Bureau of Labor Statistics CPI Inflation Calculator .

HEALTH

Average U.S. life expectancy

76.7 (1999); 77.9 (2007)

Men: 73.9 (1999); 75.3 (2007)

Women: 79.4 (1999); 80.4 (2007)

U.S. infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

7.1 (1999); 6.77 (2007)

Global child mortality rate (deaths before age 5 per 1,000 live births)

87 (1999); 65 (2009)

Life expectancy in sub-Saharan Africa (years)

46 (1999); 51 (2009)

Number of new AIDS cases in the U.S.

41,356 (1999); 37,041 (2007)

Number of AIDS deaths in U.S.

17,982 (1999); 14,561 (2007)

Diagnosed diabetics in the United States

11.1 million (1999); 17.9 million (2009)

Number of births to unmarried women in the U.S.

1.307 million (1999); 1.642 million (2006)

Number of Trojan condoms shipped in the United States

340.992 million (1999); 552.672 million (2009)

Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , UNICEF ,

Diabetes Association of Greater Cleveland , Trojan.

LIFESTYLES/MISCELLANY

Average movie ticket price

$5.08 (1999); $7.46 (2009)

In constant 1999 dollars

$5.08 (1999); $5.75 (2009)

Percentage of U.S. households that watched the top-rated television show

18.6 (1999, "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire"); 14.4 (2009, "American Idol")

Number of Roman Catholics

28 million (1999); 23.9 million (2007)

Number of Jews

2 million (1999); 1.7 million (2007)

Number of American homes without indoor plumbing

1.436 million (1999); 1.259 million (2007)

States that have legalized medical marijuana

5 (1999); 13 (2009)

Registered marijuana users in California

0 (1999); 37,236 (2009)

Number of states that permit same-sex marriage

0 (1999); 6 (2009)

U.S. prison inmates

2,026,596 (1999); 2,304,115 (2009)

Number of homicides in the United States

15,530 (1999); 16,272 (2008)

Number of U.S. executions

98 (1999); 51 (as of Dec. 14, 2009 )

Sources: Hollywood.com, Nielsen , U.S. Census Bureau , Marijuana Policy Project , Department of Justice , FBI, Death Penalty Information Center .

INTERNATIONAL

Number of countries on which the U.S. has imposed sanctions

9 (1999); 12 (2009)

Total U.N. peacekeeping budget

$1.3 billion (1999); $7.8 billion (2009)

In constant 1999 dollars

$1.3 billion (1999); $6.01 billion (2009)

Number of U.N. peacekeepers worldwide

18,460 (1999); 117,000 (2009)

Number of Israeli settlers in the West Bank

177,000 (1999); 300,000 (2009, estimated)

Population of Russia

146,670,000 (2000); 140,367,000 (2010 estimate)

Sources: U.N. Department of Peacekeeping Operations , U.N. Department of Economic and Social Affairs , B'Tselem, Israel Central Bureau of Statistics , Bureau of Labor Statistics CPI Inflation Calculator .

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